Hemp Chronology

B.C.  3.3 million years.    Most scientists today consider
Africa to be humanity’s ancestral birthplace.  Other lines
of hominid beings, not our direct ancestors, probably died out
without leaving Africa.  One line of hominid dates back 3.3
million years, from an arm and skull.  It is thought that hemp was
not growing in Africa at this time.  What could DNA tracing of hemp’s
origin tell us?

B.C.  1.7 million years.   The Los Angeles Times, May 12, 2000, cited two fossil skulls as
the earliest evidence that human ancestors migrated out of
Africa to the middle east.  The skulls were dated to 1.7
million years ago.  It may have been on these earliest
migrations out of Africa, when ancestral hominids encountered
the hemp plant, thought to be native to the Middle East or
central Asia.

B.C.  1.7 million years?    Chinese roots lie in Africa says
genetic research.  This of course lends credence to the
above theory that migrations out of Africa spread our Hominid
ancestors to the rest of the world, that Africa was the cradle
of humanity.  The time for this spread and differentiation
of races is measured in eons.  And we can theorize that
hemp-human encounters, especially for food could have occurred
during these first migrations, more than a million and a half
years ago.

B.C.  800,000.   How early did our ancestors make
ropes?  The discovery of wood working tools on the island
of Flores in Indonesia shows that early man made rafts of bamboo
lashed together probably with vines or rawhide ropes.
Could hemp ropes have been far behind?

B.C.  15,000.     Hemp history dates back to the New
Stone Age,  6,000 – 15,000 B.C., in the Middle East and
China and was one of the
first crops cultivated by people. Reportedly the first crop for
textile fiber.  Agriculture, in ultimate consequences was a
triumph more crucial than any human achievement before or
since.  People abandoned the hunter’s economy for the
village and farm.

B.C.  6,000.    This date is
thought to mark the advent of sailing.  Hemp
rope and sails carried people, commerce and warships of the world for
6,000  years, and
allowed the exploration and mapping of the planet by sea.

B.C.  3,300.  Egyptian river boat of 3300 B.C. on
pottery.  Earliest evidence of a sailing ship.

B.C.  3,100.   Earliest known picture of a vessel
under sail, from an Egyptian pottery decoration of 3100 B.C. –
From The History of Ships.

B.C.  2737.    First
recorded use of cannabis as medicine in Chinese pharmacopoeia.
In every part of the world humankind has used cannabis for a wide
variety of health problems.   In
“The ancient Chinese, especially the Emperor Shen Nung, were
startlingly modern about drugs and medicines.  They gave us
ephedrine, which they called nahuang, and about 2737 B.C. Nung wrote a
pharmacy book.  In it he was far more observant about Indian
Hemp, knew its love life, and had more understanding about its use
than most of us.” – Dr. Norman Taylor, p.3, The Marijuana
Papers.

B.C. 2700. Chinese characters conceived; Ts’ang Chieh credited with the invention. [The ancient Chinese symbol for hemp (left) is 4,700 years old,
and shows the male and female forms in a drying shed for fiber
use. (Conrad, ibid.).]

B.C.  2600.    The earliest ship we have real
knowledge of was the funeral ship of the Pharaoh Cheops, the builder
of the great pyramid at Giza.

B.C. 2200. Prisse manuscript on papyrus, probably the oldest
Egyptian document.

Modern Hemp Museum painting on
papyrus (detail).   Papyrus is a built-up, laminated
material and should not be confused with true paper, which was not
invented until about A.D. 105.

B.C.  1600.    The Egyptian Galley, using oars
and a single square sail.  Whole fleets of ships are sculptured
on the walls of Deir el Bahari near Thebes.

B.C. 1400-1300.   The earliest actual evidence of writing
in China is the incised divination bones discovered in Hunan Province
in 1899.These writings upon bones consist of short sentences
addressed to the spirits. It was, no doubt, the long, narrow form of
the bones that influenced and suggested the method of Chinese
calligraphy, vertical in form, from top to bottom.

B.C.  600.    Phoenicians sailed on an
expedition organized by Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II, and circumnavigated
the continent of Africa.

B.C. 500.   During the life of Confucius (551 -478 B.C.),
China had no true ink and no true paper. Scholars wrote on strips of
bamboo with a paint-like pigment held in the points of wooden sticks
or reeds.

B.C.  500.  The Greek galley, with both oars and a large
square sail.

B.C.  500.  Remnants of hemp dating from the 5th Century
B.C. were found in Northern Europe from a tomb containing a funerary
urn at Brandenburg.  From this came the conclusion that hemp was
employed in Northern Europe at the same time it was used by the
Chinese and the Scythians for food and pleasure. – W. Reininger,
p.100, THE MARIJUANA PAPERS.

B.C. 400-300.   Silk as a material for writing and books
was used at this period, perhaps even earlier strips of wood and
bamboo remained in favor.

B.C. 300.  Hemp brought to Syracuse from Rhodanus, to equip a
ship.  W. Reininger, p.101, THE MARIJUANA PAPERS.

B.C. 255.   First mention of the use of seals for
impressing in clay, without the use of ink.

B.C. 250.   Invention of the camel‘s-hair
brush
by Meng T’ien,
eventually revolutionizing the writing of Chinese characters.

B.C. 200.  Pausanias mentions that hemp and
other textile plants were cultivated in Elide. – W. Reininger, p. 101,
THE MARIJUANA PAPERS.

B.C. 200.   An improved method of refining parchment from
sheepskin thought to have been introduced by the King of Pergumum
(197-158 B.C.), Asia Minor.

A.D. 23 -79.  Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23 -79) relates that the
sails and  cordage of the Roman galleys were made of hemp. – W.
Reininger, p. 101, THE MARIJUANA PAPERS.

A.D. 105.   According to Chinese history it was Ts-ai
Lun in the year A.D. 105, who conceived the idea of making paper from
the bark of trees, hemp waste, old rags (hemp), and fish nets (hemp)
which were macerated in a stone mortar producing the pulp that is
characteristic of true paper. 
Ts-ai
Lun was an Imperial Guard, who announced the invention of papermaking
to the Emperor Ho Ti (A.D. 89-105). For the next 500 years, the paper
pulp process did not spread out of China. Paper was used for writing,
bibliographical purposes, and ornamental use in houses and temples. – Hunter.
[This 500 years gave the Chinese a tremendous advantage in developing
the manufacturing and uses of paper.]

A.D. 150. An apprentice to Ts-ai
Lun named Tso Tzu-yi was responsible for improving the craft of
forming sheets of paper.

Paper dating from this period found in the Great Wall of
China by Sir
Aurel Stein. Made from rags.

A.D. 175. Text of Chinese classics cut in stone, which later gave
impetus to the stone rubbings, a form of printing.

A.D. 250-300. Paper from this period found at Niya, Turkestan, by
Sir Aurel Stein.

A.D. 264. Earliest clearly dated paper. Found in Loulan,
China, by the Swedish explorer Dr. Sven Hedin.

A.D. 300. According to Chinese records, it was about this period
that paper began to be universally accepted as a substitute for wood,
bamboo, and silk as a writing material.

A.D. 400. Invention to true ink from lamp-black, used in
China for brush writing and later for wood-block printing.

A.D. 406. The commencement of the Tun-huang papers. These
manuscripts date form A.D. 406-1035., all written upon paper. Ten
thousand rolls were found in one cave on the border of Chinese
Turkestan.

A.D. 450. For the first time the Chinese made use of true ink in
printing seals. The seals were engraved in stone, metal, wood, jade,
bamboo, and horn and were used in the manner of a modern rubber stamp.
This was the earliest instance of actual printing with an incised
stamp with ink upon paper.

General use of paper in Eastern Turkestan, replacing all other
materials for calligraphy. The paper was made from rags and barks.

A.D. 610. Papermaking introduced into Japan from China, the
country from which Japan received all of her cultural and artistic
development.

A.D. 650. Earliest use of paper in Samarkand [in modern
Uzbekistan], the paper imported from China, the world’s
most highly developed Empire.

A.D. 707. Earliest use of paper in Mecca, the material brought from
the seat of its invention, China.

A.D. 751. In this year paper was made in Samarkand, the first place
outside China and Japan to understand the secrets of the craft,
revealed by Chinese prisoners of war.

A.D. 770. The earliest instance of text printing upon paper,
the million printed dharani (prayers) of the Empress Shotoku. The
paper was made from hemp [100%] and the blocks used in the printing
may have been of wood, metal, stone, or porcelain. A number of the
dharani are still extant, but no printing block used in this work has
ever been found. Each prayer was enshrined in its own individual 8
inch high wooden pagoda. The project took 6 years. While the work was
actually executed in Japan, it was accomplished under Chinese
influence and therefore this earliest of all text printing upon paper
should be regarded as almost purely of Chinese origin.

A.D. 793. Paper fabricated for the first time in Baghdad,
introduced by Harun-al-Rashid (766-809), who acquired skilled artisans
from China for the purpose.

A.D. 800. Earliest use of paper in Egypt, probably imported from
Samarkand or Baghdad.

A.D. 868. The earliest printed book, the Diamond Sutra, printed by
Wang Chieh. The book was found at Tun-huang by Sir Aurel Stein. The
roll, the original form of true Chinese book, is sixteen feet in
length. The Diamond Sutra was first printed in Japan in 1157.

A.D. 900. True paper made in Egypt for the first time, the methods
of the Chinese employed.

A.D. 950. Earliest use of paper in Spain. First Folded books
used in China.

A.D. 953. The block printing of Confucian classics as ordered by
Feng Tao completed after twenty-one years of labor. With this impetus
the craft of printing began on a much larger scale than at any
previous time.

A.D. 960. During the Sung Dynasty (A.D. 960-1126) the highest
development of printing took place, with a perfection of technical
excellence never surpassed. All forms of literature were printed and
much of this fine work remains in public and private collections.

A.D. 969. Earliest recorded mention of playing cards, China.

A.D. 972. The printing of the Buddhist Canon, comprising 130,000
pages. This was the Tripitaka, the three divisions or Abaskets
of Buddhist scriptures: Discipline, Discourses, Metaphysics (China).

A.D. 998. By this date the amount of paper money in circulation in
China had reached a total of 1,130,000 tiao. A tiao was a string of
1,000 cash, equivalent to about thirty cents in United States money
[1940’s], but having a far greater buying power.

A.D. 1035. The Persian traveler Nasiri Khosrau, on a visit to
Cairo, was astonished to see, sellers
of vegetables, spices, hardware, provided with paper in which all they
sold was immediately wrapped up, if it were not so already.
Probably the earliest recorded instance of  “packaging,”
so much in evidence today.

About this time waste paper was re-pulped and again used as material
for papermaking. [Today called recycling.]

A.D. 1041-9. Invention of movable type in China by Pi Sheng. The
Chinese language with its myriad characters did not lend itself to the
use of movable type and therefore the invention had but little use in
China.

A.D. 1100. The earliest instance of papermaking in Morocco, having
been introduced from Egypt.

First use of paper in Constantinople.

A.D. 1102. Earliest use of true paper in Sicily. [Almost
1,000 years after the discovery of true paper in China.]

A.D. 1109. Earliest existing European manuscript on paper, a deed
of King Roger, written in Arabic and Greek, Sicily.

A.D. 1150. El-Edrisi said of the Spanish city of Xativa (now
Jativa):  “A paper is
there manufactured, such as cannot be found anywhere else in the
civilized world
,  and is sent to the East and to the West.”

A.D. 1151. A stamping-mill for the maceration of rags for
papermaking was put in operation in Xativa, Spain. This type of mill
was adopted from the Orient and was used in Europe until the invention
of the Hollander in 1680.

A.D. 1154. First use of paper in Italy, in the form of a register
written by Giovanni Scriba, dated 1154 to 1166. It is thought that
this particular paper had been imported from the East. No other
specimens of paper are found in Italy until 1276, the date of the
first mention of the Fabriano paper mills.

A.D. 1221. Emperor Frederick II (A.D. 1194-1250), King of Naples
and Sicily, prohibited the use of paper for public documents, but the
edict was not entirely effective.

A.D. 1228. Earliest use of paper in Germany.

A.D. 1250. Block printing executed in Egypt. The existing prints
show Chinese influence.

A.D. 1276. First mention of the Fabriano, Italy, paper mills.

A.D. 1298. After visiting China, Marco Polo wrote regarding the
paper money he had seen
in use in that country. Paper money was
the first form of printing seen by European travelers
, and at least
eight pre-Renaissance European writers mentioned it. The description
given by Marco Polo was the most comprehensive and most widely read.

A.D. 1309. First use of paper in England.

A.D. 1319-27. Earliest use of paper money in Japan. This paper
money was secured by a gold or silver or other metallic reserve.

A.D. 1322. Usually given as the date of the first use of paper in
Holland.

A.D. 1348. Under this date it is recorded that a paper mill was
established in the Saint-Julien region near Troyes, perhaps the
earliest mill in France.

A.D. 1390. The King of Korea ordered the establishment of a
type-foundry.

First paper mill in Germany, established by Ulman Stromer, Nurnberg.
A woodcut of this mill is given in Schedel’s
Nurnberg Chronicle, 1493. Before the commencement of this mill
the paper used in Germany was imported from Italy.

A.D. 1403. Movable type produced in the royal type foundry, Korea.
Specimens of this type are in the museum in Seoul.

A.D. 1409. Earliest known book printed in Korea from movable
type.

A.D. 1420-70. Papermaking introduced into Kashmir, India, from
Samarkand, by King Zanulabin, popularly known as Budshah.

A.D. 1423. The beginning of block printing in Europe, by use of the
ancient Chinese technique. Image prints and playing cards were printed
from wood-blocks and colored by hand.

A.D. 1450-5. Johann Gutenberg’s
Bible produced. The beginning of book-printing in Europe and the
commencement of the use of paper on a comparatively large scale. The
paper used in the
printing of this Bible has never been
excelled for durability and remains to this day a monument to
the
papermaking craft
. [Hunter expounds on the paper in his text
(p.268).] No matter in what locality it was made, or in what
particular mill, this paper shows technical skill and workmanship that
is seldom encountered in modern times; the texture, strength, and tone
have remained unchanged over almost five hundred years. Through the
employment of bleach and chemicals, much of the machine-made paper and
some of the handmade paper of our own time, even with the nearly
five-hundred-year handicap, will no doubt suffer by comparison with
that of the Gutenberg Bible in another such period, or about the year
2446. [Gutenberg’s
Bible produced 1340 years after the discovery of true paper in China
in A.D. 105, and still employing hemp rags, along with flax and
cotton.]

A.D. 1470. A bookseller’s
advertisement issued by Peter Schoffer is considered to be the
first
printed poster upon paper to be produced in Europe.

A.D. 1480. Anthony Koberger, printer of Nurnberg, distributed a
printed circular
to his customers, probably the first use of
this form of advertising
.

A.D. 1487. By this year almost every country of Europe had adopted
printing, and large quantities of paper were consumed in the printing
of books.

A.D. 1491. The first paper mill in Poland.

A.D. 1493. Nurnberg Chronicle, issued by Schedel, a
pictorial history of the world embracing 645 woodcuts of 1,809
subjects [including] the first picture of a paper mill to be used in
a European book.

A.D. 1495. First paper mill established in England, by John
Tate, in Hertfordshire. The first printer to make use of Tate paper
was Wynke de Worde in the English edition of Bartholomaeus De proprietatibus
rerum
,
1496.

A.D. 1535. The first complete Bible in English, Myles
Coverdale’s
translation, probably printed in Zurich by Christopher Froschover.

The first Bible to be actually printed in England dates from 1537.

A.D. 1549. The Spanish missionary Diego de Landa, of the
Monastery of Izamal, Yucatan, burned the library of the Mayas in
Mani
. According to Dr. Victor Wolfgang von Hagen (The Aztec
and Maya Papermakers
,
New York, 1944), the Mayas were making a
sort of bark paper as early as the ninth century of our era.

A.D. 1550. Wallpaper introduced into Europe direct from
China by Spanish and Dutch traders.

Probable date of the origin and use of marbled papers, a Persian
invention.

A.D. 1575-80. The first paper mill in Mexico was established
in Culhuacan.

A.D. 1576. The first paper mill in Russia was probably established
in Moscow this year.

A.D. 1580. First commercial pasteboard manufactured in Europe. In
China and Persia board of this kind had been made centuries earlier.

A.D. 1586. The earliest mention of national papermaking in Holland.

A.D. 1589. European printing introduced into China by Jesuit
priests. In 1591 Japan received printing from the West for the first
time.

A.D. 1609. The earliest newspaper with regular publication dates, Avisa
Relation oder Zeitung
, published in Germany. The first English
newspaper was issued in London in 1622. The earliest Russian newspaper
appeared in 1703.

A.D. 1630. Paper cartridges [for guns] first used by
Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632), King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632.

[A small book, Good Order Established in New Jersey and
Pennsylvania
, by Thomas Budd, proposed an economy for the region
based on growing hemp and flax for the production of linen cloth to be
sold in England. Store houses for the crops were to act as banks.
Taxes could be paid in hemp and flax. Budd also proposed public
schools and student labor spinning the linen.  A modern copy of
this tract is in the U.S.A. Hemp Museum Library.]

A.D. 1636. E. and R. Greenbury granted the first English patent for
the decorating of a paper
for hanging; or
wallpaper.

England visited by a plague thought to have been brought
into the country through linen and cotton rags imported by the
papermakers. [Yes, hemp was there too.]

A.D. 1638-9. First printing press set up in North America by
Stephen Daye, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The first printing executed
was a broadside on paper: The Freeman’s
Oath
;
first thing in book form, Peirce’s
Almanack for 1639;
earliest existing specimen of Cambridge
printing: John Eliot’s
Bay Psalm Book,
dated 1640.

A.D. 1661. First New Testament printed in America, John
Eliot’s translation
into Algonquin, printed at Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Samuel Green
and Marmaduke Johnson. The Old Testament was issued in 1663, the two
making the first Bible printed in this country. The paper was of
European manufacture.

A.D. 1666. To save linen and cotton for the papermakers a decree
was issued in England prohibiting the use of these materials for the
burial of the dead; only wool could be used for this purpose. In
England at this time 200,000 pounds of linen and cotton were saved
annually in this manner.

A.D. 1680. The “Hollander,”
or beater, used in the maceration of materials for making into paper,
invented in the Netherlands.

A.D. 1683. The earliest treatise on type founding, Mechanick
Exercises
,
by Joseph Moxon (1627-1700), published in London.

A.D. 1687. The earliest use of ochre, umbers, and vermilion in the
coloring of European paper.

A.D. 1690. First paper money in the colonies, issued by
Massachusetts Bay Colony.

William Rittenhouse established the first paper mill in British
America,
near Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

A.D. 1704. The Boston News Letter established in
Boston by John Cambell, the earliest permanent newspaper in
America.

A.D. 1710. The second paper mill in the colonies set up by William
DeWees, Pennsylvania.

A.D. 1714. Invention and patent of a typewriter for
“transcribing
of letters, one after another, as in writing on paper.”
The patent was issued in England, January 7, to Henry Mill.

A.D. 1718. First colored printing (red and black) accomplished in
America,
by Andrew Bradford, Philadelphia.

A.D. 1719. Establishment of American Weekly Mercury, Philadelphia,
the first newspaper in Pennsylvania.

 First suggested use of wood as a papermaking fiber.
French scientist Rene Reaumur’s
observations were made after a study of the wasp in making its nest, a
form of paper.

A.D. 1726. The beginning of papermaking in the state of New Jersey.

A.D. 1729. Third paper mill in Pennsylvania established in Chester
County by Thomas Willcox.

A.D. 1736. The fourth paper mill in Pennsylvania, established by a
branch of the Pietists of Germany, at Ephrata, Lancaster County.

A.D. 1737. The earliest advertisement for foreign wallpaper to
appear in America.In 1763 decorated wallpaper of domestic
manufacture was presented. In 1789 Philadelphia was making 10,000
pieces a month.

A.D. 1743. America’s
earliest complete Bible
in a European language published in German
by Christopher Sauer, Germantown, Pennsylvania. Some of the paper from
the Ephrata mill.

A.D. 1744. The date of the establishment of the first paper mill in
the state of Virginia.

A.D. 1753.  Indian Hemp was properly christened by Linnaeus,
in 1753, as Cannabis sativa, which remains the botanical
name for the plant species.

A.D. 1758. First forgery of English bank-notes.

A.D. 1764. First paper mill in Rhode Island.

A.D. 1767. First paper mill in Connecticut was in operation.

A.D. 1769-73. The precise commencement of the actual making of
paper within the state of New York is a subject of controversy [but
around this time].

A.D. 1770. About this time came into use the first machine for the
ruling of music paper and paper for account-books. An English patent
was granted John Tetlow on June 15 of this year. Previous to this time
all music and account-book paper was ruled by hand.

A.D. 1772. First use of paper in Europe for building coaches,
sedan chairs, cabinets, bookcases
, screens, etc.

A.D. 1773. An act was passed in England that decreed the death
penalty for copying or imitating the watermarks in English bank-notes.

A.D. 1774. Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-86), a Swedish chemist
discovered chlorine,
which was in later years used in the
bleaching of paper stock.

A.D. 1776. [From Hunter’s
text p.16:  “Thomas
Jefferson’s rough
draft of the
Declaration of Independence is written on four pages of Dutch
paper
and may have been from any of a dozen mills. The original
Declaration was adopted on July 4, 1776.The officially signed
Declaration of Independence was engrossed upon parchment [animal skin]
by order of the Congress of July 19, 1776.

A.D. 1782. First Bible printed in America in the English
language,
by Robert Aitken, Philadelphia. The volume embraces more
than 1400 unnumbered pages, the page size being 3 2
by 6 inches.

A.D. 1783. Joseph Michel Montgolfier (1740-1810), famed papermaker
of France, invented first practical balloon. [Want to bet hemp
was there?]

A.D. 1793. The earliest mention of a Kentucky paper mill that
actually materialized. The mill was erected in Georgetown in what is
now Scott County.

A.D. 1798. The paper-machine invented by Nicholas-Louis Robert,
a Frenchman.

 

A.D. 1800. Connecticut had sixteen paper mills in operation.

Matthias Koops, living in London, began his experiments in the use
of wood,
straw, and the de-inking of paper. The greater part of the
present-day paper industry is founded upon the pioneer work of Koops.

Germany operated 500 paper mills, producing 1,250 tons of paper a
year; Spain had 200 mills, Sweden 24, and Russia 26.

A.D. 1801. John Gamble on April 20 received the earliest English
patent pertaining to the
paper-machine. The title of this
patent is: An
invention of making paper in single sheets without seams or joining,
from one to 12 feet and upwards wide & from one to 45 feet and
upwards in length.

A.D. 1802. Probably the earliest use of bleached wood-pulp paper
in English book production. The book, and edition of The Mathematical
and Philosophical Works, to which is prefixed the author’s
life, by the Right Rev. John Wilkins, was printed in London by C.
Whittingham.

A.D. 1803. First paper produced in Lower Canada.

A.D. 1806. The date of the earliest known paper mill in South
Carolina. The first letter relative to the paper mill is from Benj.
Waring to Richard Waring. The letter reads: “I
suppose you have heard of my erecting a Paper-Mill. Let me know if it
would be convenient for you to purchase or receive old Rags and send
up here by boat.”   In this letter is set forth the importance of rags to a paper mill, a
plea that is ever present all through the history of pioneer American
papermaking.

A.D. 1810. The total number of paper mills in the United States is
estimated to be 185, with Pennsylvania (60) and Massachusetts (48) the
leading states.

A.D. 1816. By act of Congress of April 26 a thirty-per-cent duty
was placed on all imports of paper into the United States. By 1820
there was being made in this country $3,000,000 worth of paper; by
1830 the volume had risen to $7,000,000.

Bishop records that the first steam paper mill in the United
States
was put in operation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

A.D. 1817. First paper-machine erected in America, a
cylinder machine operated in the mill of Thomas Gilpin, near
Philadelphia. The original machine did the work of ten vats of the
handmade mills.

A.D. 1822. The completion of ReeRee’s
Cyclopedia
,
Philadelphia, up to that time the largest work in the
English language. The printing of this 41-volume work with 147
engravings required 30,000 reams of paper.

A.D. 1824. The first machine for pasting sheets of paper
together, forming cardboard
. The patent was granted to John
Dickinson, the inventor of the cylinder machine.

A.D. 1829. Of the sixty paper mills in Massachusetts, only six had
paper-machines. The rest were handmade-paper mills. By this time many
of the rags were imported from Germany and Italy.

A.D. 1830. Commercially made sandpaper produced about this
time, one side of the paper being brushed with glue, and sand, ground
glass, or emery dusted upon the paper. Previous to this date most
workers made their own abrasives by coating ordinary canvas or heavy
paper with glue and sprinkling sand upon the surface.

 Chlorine bleach, invented by Scheele in 1774, first used by
American papermakers in bleaching rags for making paper.

 

A.D. 1834. The earliest papermaking in the state of Missouri.
Printing, however, was accomplished in this state as early as 1808 by
Joseph Charless, but the paper used came from Georgetown, Kentucky.
[Missouri became part of the United States through the Louisiana
Purchase of 1803. And was admitted to the Union as a slave state in
1821. Missouri stayed with the Union during the Civil War.] The
Missouri Gazette, established by Charless, had no end of difficulty in
procuring paper for publication, and in March 1809 the newspaper was
printed on letter paper; in the publication of January 1814 the editor
complained that there was no regular trade with Kentucky, where funds
has been sent and the paper awaited a trader bound for Missouri. As
early as January 1834 the newly established Missouri mill advertised
for rags:  “good,
clean linen and cotton rags 3 cents per pound, for woolen 10 cents,
and jean rags 1 cent per pound.”
But apparently it was not until the latter part of the year that the
mill was actually in operation, when the Missouri Intelligencer,
December 27, 1934, announced the event in the following manner:
The
paper on which this number of the Missouri Intelligencer was printed,
was made at the paper mill of Messrs. Lamme, Keiser & Company, in
this county (Rock Bridge, near Columbia, Boone County). It is a fair
specimen of what may be expected when the mill has been longer in
operation. This is the only establishment of the kind in Missouri or
Illinois, and the worthy and enterprising proprietors, who have
expended a large sum in the undertaking, merit, and we sincerely hope,
will receive a liberal and general support from the printers and
merchants of the two states, -particularly Missouri. The machinery is
entirely new, and the whole establishment is on an extensive
scale. We are sorry to see that the new Journal at Fayette, only 25
or 30 miles from the mill in Boone, is printed on something probably
called paper, but possessing neither soul or body, of which we
understand, the editor procured a large supply from Cincinnati! We
hope we will not have occasion hereafter to say the same in reference
to any other editor in Boon’s
Lick.” The first paper
manufactured in Missouri was made on a paper-machine [of unknown type].

A.D. 1837. The first use of old manila rope as a papermaking fiber
in the United States. Owing to the depression Lyman Hollingsworth,
South Braintree, Massachusetts, was forced to use this material as a
substitute for linen and cotton rags, and a new source of material was
inaugurated.

A.D. 1840. Cannabis sativa, variety indica is introduced to Western
medicine by an English doctor working in India.  W. B. O’Shaughnessy,
M.D. introduced the medical uses of the hemp plant.

A.D. 1841. Charles Fenerty, a Nova Scotian, produced in Halifax
the first ground-wood paper
made in the Western Hemisphere.

A.D. 1842. Will Egley, an English artist, produced the original
Christmas card
, an idea that was eventually to consume prodigious
quantities of paper and cardboard in all countries where Christmas is
celebrated.

A.D. 1844. The first commercial paper boxes made in America,
by Colonel Andrew Dennison, a cobbler, at his home in Brunswick,
Maine. This was the commencement of the Dennison Manufacturing
Company.

A.D. 1845. Massachusetts had 89 paper mills producing 600,000 reams
of paper a year. By this year only two handmade-paper mills remained
in America; all other mills were operating paper-machines. Germany was
operating 1,043 vats for forming paper by hand.

A.D. 1847. First postage stamps used in the United States,
founded on the George Plitt report on the
“penny
black” of England,
used in 1840.

A.D. 1850. Paper bags made for the first time, entirely by
hand. The earliest automatic paper-bag machine was built in 1876. (In
the United States during the year 1941, 50,000,000,000 paper bags of
all sizes were consumed.) [U.S. population has doubled since 1941.]

A.D. 1851. First useful paper made from chemical wood fiber
originated by Hugh Burgess and Charles Watt. The process was patented
in the United States in 1854.

A.D. 1854. The earliest paper to be made in Utah was formed by hand
by Thomas Howard, an English Mormon, assisted by Thomas Hollis. The
small beginning was sponsored by Brigham Young (1801-77) and the
Mormon Church. The first sheets of paper were produced on June 27,
1854 and probably found their original use in the printing of the
Deseret News, Brigham Young’s
newspaper, which began publication in Great Salt Lake City, June 15, 1850.this notice appeared in his newspaper:  Rags!
Rags! Rags! Save your rags, everybody in Deseret, save your rags; old
wagon covers [hemp], tents [hemp], quilts [hemp and flax], shirts
[hemp], etc., are wanted for paper. [First mill opened in the Far
West
.]

A.D. 1856. By this year the consumption of paper in the United
States had reached a point where it equaled that of England and France
combined.

A.D. 1856-7. The first paper-mill to be established in California
and the second in the Far West.

A.D. 1860. As late as this date rags formed 88 per cent of the
total papermaking material
.

It is claimed that I. Augustus Stanwood and William Tower produced
ground-wood paper in their mill in Gardiner, Maine, in January of this
year.

[Birth of George Washington Carver, Circa 1860. Born the
slave of Missouri landowner Moses Carver, George became the
foremost agricultural scientist America has ever
seen.]

A.D. 1862.  Hemp tents, wagon covers, and ropes supply the
four million men who fought on both sides in the Civil War.

A.D. 1865. Between this date and 1885 a larger number of patents
relating to papermaking were issued by the United States Patent Office
than had ever been known in the history of any country.

A.D. 1867. Albrecht Pagenstecher, Curtisville, Massachusetts,
established the first ground-wood mill in the United States.

A.D. 1868. By this time paper was being converted into articles
for almost every conceivable purpose: boxes, cups, plates, wash-bowls,
barrels, table tops, window blinds, roofing, collars, vests, cuffs,
aprons, towels, napkins, shirt bosoms, buttons, hats, handkerchiefs,
raincoats, corsets, slippers, petticoats, curtains, carpets, machine
belts, etc.
song entitled The Age of Paper was popular in London
music halls.

The New Yorker Staats-Zeitung was printed on American newsprint
made from ground-wood pulp, the first New York City newspaper to use
paper made of wood.

 

The making of fine paper for printing and writing began near
Melbourne, Australia.

Previous to this time the supply was imported from the United
States and Europe.

A.D. 1871. The earliest use in America of toilet paper in roll
form
, a United States patent issued to Seth Wheeler this year.
[Toilet paper first seen in China A.D. 875.] The use of toilet paper
did not progress rapidly, but by 1899 it was used universally. In 1940
there were consumed in the United States 300,000 tons of toilet paper.
Building paper”
was first extensively used in America

directly after the Chicago fire, when the Western Paper Company made
the paper for lining 10,000 houses to accommodate those made homeless
by the conflagration.

A.D. 1880. At this time there were about 350,000 tons of rags used
yearly in the United States in the making of paper; of this amount
approximately 85,000 tons were imported from foreign countries.

The first ground-wood pulp produced on the Pacific coast was made
by R. M. Brayne on Young’s
River, about 12 miles south of Astoria, Oregon later the Willamette
Pulp and Paper Company.

A.D. 1882. Sulphite pulp first made in the United States on a
commercial scale, by C .S. Wheelwright, Providence, Rhode Island.

[According to Hunter:  “This
sulphite pulp is made by a chemical acid process
which embodied
the application of sulphurous acid to wood to effect the dissolution
of the intercellular matter, leaving a fiber sufficiently strong to
felt properly in sheet form.

THE EFFECT OF WOOD PULP ON THE INDUSTRY (P.393)

Wood as a raw material made possible the phenomenal growth of the
paper industry and furnished a material that conserved the supply of
rags for use in making fine papers. Wood now serves not so much as a
substitute for rags, as originally intended, but as a more important
material for increasing the scope and variety of papers to meet an
ever growing demand for new uses for paper.

At present there are comparatively few plants and a limited number
of trees that will yield cellulose economically for quantity
production. The plants are those containing vegetable fibers in the
form of cotton, flax, hemp, jute, sugar cane, straw, espartro,
and corn stalks. Of the trees there are spruce, balsam, fir, jack
pine, hemlock, southern pine, poplar, and cottonwood.”]

A.D. 1888. Sulphite pulp produced in Canada, by Charles Riordon, Merritton, Ontario.

A.D. 1888.  The explorer Hermann von Wissmann (1853-1905)
visited the Baloubas, a Bantu tribe of the Belgian Congo.  He
relates that in 1888 Kalamba-Noukenge, the chief, in order to
strengthen the kingdom that he had founded by conquest, and to link
together in one cult the diverse subjugated tribes, had the ancient
fetishes burned publicly, and replaced the worship of the idols with a
new ritual which consisted essentially in the smoking of hashish. – W.
Reininger, p. 100, THE MARIJUANA PAPERS.

A.D. 1889. For the first time in the United States
paper-production exceeded 1,000,000 tons per annum.

A.D. 1891. Paper as insulation in telephone cables used by the Bell
System; The paper was .0025 inch in thickness.

A.D. 1894. About this time automatic machines for the making of
paper boxes
were in general use, the beginning of the packaging era.

[George Washington Carver, agricultural scientist, made paper from
Southern Pine, almost 25 years before it was made on a commercial
scale.]

A.D. 1895. According to the World’s
Paper Trade Review, London, a church made of paper was built in
England this year. The building material was made of compressed brown
paper reinforced with wire. The edifice, the Church of St. Owen, is
located in the village of Downham-in-the-Isle. From the account it may
be assumed that the building is serving its purpose at the present
time and from all indications it is sufficiently durable to withstand
the rigors of the English climate for another half century.

Plain and decorated paper napkins first brought to this country
from Japan
on a large commercial scale. (In 1940 the United States
used 40,000,000,000 paper napkins of all types and from all parts of
the world.)

A.D. 1899. Production of paper in the United States was
2,167,593 tons.

[A.D. 1900. According to Jack Frazier, by this year all newspapers
and most books and magazines were printed on chemical acid tree-pulp
paper (Conrad, p.116.)]

A.D. 1901. In England at this time compressed paper had become a
standard material for the construction of hansom cabs, interiors of
railway carriages, drain pipes, oil drums, and military hospital
buildings. In America the use of paper in heavy construction had begun
earlier.

A.D. 1903. First use of corrugated fiber containers, replacing wood
boxes to a great extent. The use of fiber boxes was authorized by the
railroads of the United States in 1906.

A.D. 1906. The first paper milk-bottles made this year by G. W.
Maxwell, San Francisco, California.

A.D. 1907. By this date medicated papers were in universal use.
These antiseptic papers included gout papers, Christy’s
chrome-gelatine for bandaging, East Indian paper plaster for slight
flesh wounds, mustard paper, Ricou’s
anti-asthma paper, blister paper, Gautier’s
nascent iodine paper, hygienic paper handkerchiefs, towels, etc.

A.D. 1910. About this time the wrapping of bread in printed paper
became universal in America. Also the wrapping of fruit in paper had
its beginning.

A.D. 1915. The earliest use in California of paper trays for the
drying of raisins.
In 1940 more than 80 per cent of the raisin-drying
trays were made of paper [wood-pulp]. Previously they were fabricated
from wood.

[A.D. 1916. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin
404
,  “Hemp
Hurds as Paper Making Material,”
by Lyster Dewey and Jason Merrill, gave a dire warning about the
dangers of using tree pulp for paper.  “Our
forests are being cut three times as fast as they grow
. It is
advisable to investigate the paper-making value of the more promising
plant materials before a critical situation arises.”
 Bulletin 404 proved the value of hemp hurd or pulp for
paper.
The report noted that hemp produces a new crop every
season, while trees took 20 years to be ready for cutting, and hemp
yielded more than four times as much pulp per acre as timber,

making it a cheaper and more sustainable source for all grades of
paper. It also declared that hemp is easy to produce, treat, and
transport and is fully adequate to the task:  “The
permanency of the supply of hemp seems assured.”  Bulletin 404 noted that,
“hemp
hurd (pulp) stock acts similarly to soda-poplar stock, but will
produce a somewhat harsher and stronger sheet and one of higher
folding endurance. In fact, the hurd stock might very possibly meet
with favor as a book-stock furnish.”

The conclusions of USDA Bulletin 404, 1916, are timely today
and bear repeating:

“There appears to be little doubt that under
the present system of forest use and consumption the present supply
can not withstand the demands placed upon it. By the time improved
methods of forestry have established an equilibrium between production
and consumption, the price of pulp wood may be such that a knowledge
of other available raw materials may be imperative.

Semi-commercial paper-making tests were conducted, therefore, on
hemp hurds, in cooperation with a paper manufacturer. After the
several trials, under conditions of treatment and manufacture which
are regarded as favorable in comparison with those used with pulp
wood, paper was produced which received very favorable comment both
from investigators and from the trade and which according to official
tests would be classed as a No. 1 machine-finish printing paper.”

As we have seen in this chronology, paper made of hemp fiber has a
life span of centuries, even millennia. It is known as the
“archivist’s
perfect paper.”
[This compared to the 25 to 80 years of acid, bleached tree-pulp paper
which hardens, cracks, yellows, crumbles or otherwise deteriorates.]

[A.D. 1917. For a brief period around this time the Scripps
newspaper chain considered using hemp hurds grown in California’s
Imperial Valley for their paper, using a decorticator invented by G.
W.
Schlichten. Unfortunately, the economic impact of the First World War
caused the company to cut the project and kept it from moving beyond
the research scale. (Conrad, p.35).]

A.D. 1920. Paper was made at a speed of 1,000 feet a minute on
October 23, 1920, at the mill of Wausau Sulphate Fiber Company,
Mosinee, Wisconsin.

A.D. 1921. First use of Alabama spruce pine for making paper on a
commercial scale.

[A.D. 1916-37. New uses for hemp fiber and hemp pulp, known
as hurds (usually a waste product of fiber production), were being
developed for paper, plastics, explosives, fabrics, and fuels.]

 

[A.D. 1930. The Paper Trade Journal ran a survey of
technical processes that cited dozens of reports showing the
structural advantages of using hemp over timber pulp. (Conrad, ibid.)]

[A.D. 1937. A New Jersey engineering report warned that
“recent
floods and dust storms have given warnings against the destruction of
timber. Possibly, the hitherto waste products of flax and hemp may yet
meet a good part of that need.”
(Conrad, ibid.) ]

[A.D. 1937. Mechanical Engineering magazine declared hemp,
“the  most
profitable and desirable crop that can be grown.”

(Conrad, ibid.)]

[A.D. 1937.  Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, leads to the prohibition of
any hemp growing.]

 

[A.D. 1938. Popular Mechanics magazine dubbed hemp the
“New
Billion Dollar Crop”
and predicted a bonanza for farmers and industry alike, in a report
prepared in 1937. With its 25,000 viable uses, hemp will provide
thousands of jobs for American workers throughout the land, reported
the magazine.]

A.D. 1940. Production of paper in the United States, 14,372,000
tons. About this time newsprint to the amount of 8,971,000 tons
produced in the world, Canada making two fifths of this. In the
Northwest of the U.S. at this time 350 carloads of paper consumed each
season in wrapping fruit and 57 carloads for paper twine used in the
tying of wool. The U.S. used 40,000,000,000 paper napkins this year
and 300,000 tons of toilet paper. During the year 1941, 50,000,000,000
paper bags of all sizes were consumed. In 1942, the Christmas card
industry in the U.S. produced three billion cards. In 1945, it stated
that there are 14,000 different paper products.

The chronology of Dard Hunter ends here. As can be seen here paper
consumption in the United States went from one million tons per year
in 1889 to over 14 million tons per year in 1940. According to Conrad,
93 per cent of the worlds paper is made from timber and only 29 per
cent of that is recycled. Worldwide, 226 million tons of trees were
pulped for paper in 1988, and at current growth rates the demand will
triple by the year 2020.

The idea of this chronology was to make you believe there was hemp,
since we were not taught about this incredible plant in school, and to
educate you about the relation of hemp, paper, and timber.

A.D. 1972.  The Nixon-appointed Shafer Commission urged laws
against private use and cultivation of cannabis be repealed.
This suggestion was never implemented.

A.D. 1975.  U.S.F.D.A. establishes Compassionate Use Program
for medical marijuana.  See Elvy Musikka in the
Cannabis
Commendation Room
.

A.D. 1988.  Drug Enforcement Administration law Judge Francis
Young found after thorough hearings (two years, hundreds of witnesses
and researchers) that marijuana had clearly established medical use
and should be reclassified as a prescriptive drug in accordance with
the law.  This was not done in violation of the law.

A.D. 1990.  The California Drug Advisory Board recommends
legal cultivation of marijuana.

A.D. 1991.  80 percent of San Francisco, California voters
vote to legalize medicinal use of marijuana.

A.D. 1992.  California’s Santa Cruz County votes 77% to
legalize marijuana by prescription.

A.D. 1993.  California Senators Mello and Marks sponsor
SJR8:  the Medical Marijuana Resolution.

1993.  Morro Bay
Board of Supervisors votes to restore the medical use of marijuana.

1993.  San Luis
Obispo City Council votes to restore and study the medical use of
marijuana.

1993.  Both Houses
of the State Legislature pass SJR8;  Assembly: 47- 20;
Senate:  23 – 9.  Resolutions do not go to the Governor, so
the measure passed and was sent to the Federal Government requesting
changes in federal law.

A.D. 1994.   April.  California Senate Bill
1364.  Senator Marks & Assemblyman Gil Ferguson introduce a
bill called SB 1364 to reschedule marijuana to allow physicians to
prescribe, allow for medical use.

June, 1994.  SB 1364 passes both houses of the Legislature with
bipartisan support.
October, 1994.  Governor Wilson vetoes SB-1364.

A.D. 1995.  California Assembly Bill 1529.  Assemblyman
John Vasconcellos sponsors AB-1529, The Medical Necessity Defense
Act.  AB-1529 passes the state legislature with bipartisan
support.
October, 1995.  Governor Wilson vetoes for the second time a
medical marijuana bill, forcing the coalition to take their message to
the voters via the initiative process.

A.D. 1996.  November election.  Voters pass the initiative called
the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, which gave Californians the right to use
marijuana for medical purposes when approved by a physician.